Closing Price in Relation to the Day’s Range, and Equity Index Mean Reversion

The location of the closing price within the day’s range is a surprisingly powerful predictor of next-day returns for equity indices. The closing price in relation to the day’s range (or CRTDR [UPDATE: as reader Jan mentioned in the comments, there is already a name for this: Internal Bar Strength or IBS] if you’re a fan of unpronounceable acronyms) is simply calculated as such:

CRTDR formula

It takes values between 0 and 1 and simply indicates at which point along the day’s range the closing price is located. In this post I will take a look not only at returns forecasting, but also how to use this value in conjunction with other indicators. You may be skeptical about the value of something so extremely simplistic, but I think you’ll be pleasantly surprised.

The basics: QQQ and SPY

First, a quick look at QQQ and SPY next-day returns depending on today’s CRTDR:

SPY CRTDR

QQQ CRTDR

A very promising start. Now the equity curves for each quartile:

spy quartile ECs

QQQ quartile ECs

That’s quite good; consistency through time and across assets is important and we’ve got both in this case. The magnitude of the out-performance of the bottom quartile is very large; I think we can do something useful with it.

There are several potential improvements to this basic approach: using the range of several days instead of only the last one, adjusting for the day’s close-to-close return, and averaging over several days are a few of the more obvious routes to explore. However, for the purposes of this post I will simply continue to use the simplest version.

CRTDR Internationally

A quick look across a larger array of assets, which is always an important test (here I also incorporate a bit of shorting):

All ETF results

Long when CRTDR < 45%, short when CRTDR > 95%. $10k per trade. Including commissions of $0.005 per share, excluding dividends.

One question that comes up when looking at ETFs of foreign indices is about the effect of non-overlapping trading hours. Would we be better off using the ETF trading hours or the local trading hours to determine the range and out predictions? Let’s take a look at the EWU ETF (iShares MSCI United Kingdom Index Fund) vs the FTSE 100 index, with the following strategy:

  • Go long on close if CRTDR < 45%
  • Go short on close if CRTDR > 95%
FTSE vs EWU

FTSE vs EWU CRTDR strategy, 1996-2012. $1m per trade (the number was a technical necessity due to the price of the FTSE 100 index).

Fascinating! This result left me completely stumped. I would love to hear your ideas about this…I have a feeling that there must be some sort of explanation, but I’m afraid I can’t come up with anything realistic.

Trading Signal or Filter?

It should be noted that I don’t actually use the CRTRD as a signal to take trades at all. Given the above results you may find this surprising, but all the positive returns are already captured by other, similar (and better), indicators (especially short-term price-based indicators such as RSI(3)). Instead I use it in reverse: as a filter to exclude potential trades. To demonstrate, let’s have a look at a very simplistic mean reversion system:

  • Buy QQQ at close when RSI(3) < 10
  • Sell QQQ at close when RSI(3) > 50

On average, this will result in a daily return of 0.212%. So we have two approaches in our hands that both have positive expectancy, what happens if we combine them?

  • Go long either on the RSI(3) criteria above OR CRTDR < 50%
QQQ RSI and RSI with CRTDR

RSI(3) and RSI(3) w/ CRTDR strategy applied to QQQ. Commissions not included.

This is a bit surprising: putting together two systems, both of which have positive expectancy, results in significantly lower returns. At this point some may say “there’s no value to be gained here”. But fear not, there are significant returns to be wrung out of the CRTDR! Instead of using it as a signal, what if we use it in reverse as a filter? Let’s investigate further: what happens if we split these days up by CRTDR?

RSI signal returns by CRTDR

Now that’s quite interesting. Combining them has very bad results, but instead we have an excellent method to filter out bad RSI(3) trades. Let’s have a closer look at the interplay between RSI(3) signals and CRTDR:

RSI CRTDR square

Next-day QQQ returns.

And now the equity curves with and without the CRTDR < 50% filter:

QQQ RSI and RSI with CRTDR filter

RSI(3) and RSI(3) w/ CRTDR < 50% filter applied to QQQ. Commissions not included.

That’s pretty good. Consistent performance and out-performance relative to the vanilla RSI(3) strategy. Not only that, but we have filtered out over 35% of trades which not only means far less money spent on commissions, but also frees up capital for other trades.

UPDATE: I neglected to mention that I use Cutler’s RSI and not the “normal” one, the difference being the use of simple moving averages instead of exponential moving averages. I have also uploaded an excel sheet and Multicharts .net signal code that replicate most of the results in the post.